What causes cancer heterogeneity?
Causes of tumor heterogeneity
It is caused by exposure to mutagens such as UV radiation or faults in the internal regulation of processes, including DNA replication and repair. Though not a baseline contributor, chemotherapy may also create genomic instability by increasing the mutational spectrum of the tumor.
Why is intratumoral heterogeneity a problem?
Tumor heterogeneity is associated with poor prognosis and outcome [3–6]. It is thought that intratumor heterogeneity is one of the leading determinants of therapeutic resistance and treatment failure and one of the main reasons for poor overall survival in cancer patients with metastatic disease [1, 7].
Does heterogeneous mean cancer?
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Practically from the moment pathologists first looked at human cancers under the microscope, they saw that differing histologic appearances could define distinct subtypes of cancers from the same primary site of origin.
What does heterogeneous mean in medical terms?
Heterogeneous refers to a structure with dissimilar components or elements, appearing irregular or variegated. For example, a dermoid cyst has heterogeneous attenuation on CT. It is the antonym for homogeneous, meaning a structure with similar components.
What does heterogeneous appearance mean?
Heterogeneous is a word pathologists use to describe tissue that looks very different from one area of the tissue to the next. Differences in colour, shape, and size can make a tissue look heterogeneous. Heterogeneous can be used to describe the way the tissue looks with or without a microscope.
What is a heterogeneous condition?
A heterogeneous medical condition or heterogeneous disease is a medical term referring to a medical condition with several etiologies (root causes), such as hepatitis or diabetes.
Can a heterogeneous mass be benign?
Soft tissue tumors are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions that develop from various nonepithelial, extraskeletal elements, including adipose tissue, smooth and skeletal muscle, tendon, cartilage, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, and lymphatic structures.
What do you mean by heterogeneity?
: the quality or state of consisting of dissimilar or diverse elements : the quality or state of being heterogeneous cultural heterogeneity.
How do you measure heterogeneity of a tumor?
A more direct measure of tumor heterogeneity is the cancer cell fraction (CCF), which is the fraction of cells having a specific SNV. We determined the CCFs for all cancers and mutation callers using PyClone7 (see Methods), and calculated MATH score using CCFs instead of allele frequencies (AF).
What does intratumoral mean?
(IN-truh-TOO-mer-ul) Within a tumor.
What is Intertumoral heterogeneity?
Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) refers to the presence of distinct tumor cell populations. It provides vital information for the clinical prognosis, drug responsiveness, and personalized treatment of cancer patients.
What is the example of heterogeneous?
A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture of two or more compounds. Examples are: mixtures of sand and water or sand and iron filings, a conglomerate rock, water and oil, a salad, trail mix, and concrete (not cement).
What does it mean to have a heterogeneous thyroid gland?
Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid gland has been associated with diffuse thyroid disease and benign and malignant nodules can coexist with diffuse thyroid disease. Underlying heterogeneous echogenicity might make it difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules on US.
What does it mean to have a heterogeneous uterus?
The heterogeneous appearance reflects the infiltrative process of islands of heterotropic endometrial tissue that are scattered diffusely throughout the myometrium and that are poorly demarcated from the surrounding myometrium (,28,,29) (,Fig 11).