What is an embryonal carcinoma?
Embryonal carcinoma is a type of testicular cancer, which is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. It most often develops in young and middle-aged men. It tends to grow rapidly and spread outside the testicle.
Why is embryonal carcinoma called?
Embryonal carcinoma can increase blood levels of a tumor marker protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as well as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Yolk sac carcinoma: These tumors are so named because their cells look like the yolk sac of an early human embryo.
What are the two types of germ cell tumors?
There are two types of germ cell tumors that start in the gonads, or reproductive organs: seminomas, which are slower-growing, and nonseminomas, which are faster-growing tumors. These germ cell tumors typically form during puberty.
Is Sertoli cell tumor a germ cell tumor?
They are very rare and generally peak between the ages of 35 and 50. They are typically well-differentiated, and may be misdiagnosed as seminomas as they often appear very similar. A tumor that produces both Sertoli cells and Leydig cells is known as a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
|Sertoli cell tumour|
Is embryonal carcinoma painful?
Conclusion. Embryonal cell carcinoma is one of the most common testicular malignancies. Testicular carcinomas most commonly occur in 20- to 30-year-old men. Some common symptoms of embryonal cell carcinoma include swelling and a painful, palpable mass located on the testis.
How does embryonal carcinoma occur?
Cellular origin. Embryonal carcinomas arise from gonadal or extragonadal germ cells, i.e. pluripotent stem cells. Some authors consider these neoplasms to be a transitional step in teratoma development.
Is embryonal carcinoma genetic?
Embryonal carcinoma was found to have a six-gene signature which was detected in 3 of 5 studies and included DNMT3B, DPPA4, GAL, GPC4, POU5F1, and TERF1. All six genes play important roles in embryonic development and pluri-potency, which is the evidence that embryonic carcinoma resembles inner cell mass.
What is the most aggressive testicular tumor?
Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors
Embryonal carcinoma: present in about 40 percent of tumors and among the most rapidly growing and potentially aggressive tumor types. Embryonal carcinoma can secrete HCG or alpha fetoprotein (AFP).
What is adenoma carcinoma?
Listen to pronunciation. (A-deh-noh-KAR-sih-NOH-muh) Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells are found in tissue that lines certain internal organs and makes and releases substances in the body, such as mucus, digestive juices, or other fluids.
What is the survival rate of germ cell tumor?
The 5-year survival rate for teens ages 15 to 19 is 93%. The survival and cure rates also depend on several factors, including the stage of the disease. The cure rate for children with a stage I or stage II germ cell tumor is 90%. The cure rate for a stage III tumor is 87%.
Can germ cell tumor be cured?
Treatment for malignant tumors includes surgery or chemotherapy. The outlook depends on the stage of the cancer, the tumor’s size and whether it has spread to other parts of your body. Most germ cell tumors are treatable.
How common are germ cell tumors?
Germ cell tumors are rare. Germ cell tumors account for about 2 to 4 percent of all cancers in children and adolescents younger than age 20. Germ cell tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. The most common sites for metastasis are the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and central nervous system.
Is seminoma benign or malignant?
A seminoma is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered in early stages.
What are germ cell Tumours?
Germ cell tumors are growths of cells that form from reproductive cells. The tumors may be cancerous or not cancerous. Most germ cell tumors occur in the testicles or the ovaries.