Question: How does BRAF mutation cause cancer?


What does a mutation in BRAF do?

A specific mutation (change) in the BRAF gene, which makes a protein that is involved in sending signals in cells and in cell growth. This BRAF gene mutation may be found in some types of cancer, including melanoma and colorectal cancer. It may increase the growth and spread of cancer cells.

What cancers are BRAF mutations?

BRAF mutation is seen in melanoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (including papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from ovarian teratoma), ovarian serous tumours, colorectal carcinoma, gliomas, hepatobiliary carcinomas and hairy cell leukaemia.

What is the effect of the BRAF mutation on chromosome 7?

Mutations in the BRAF gene on chromosome 7 are associated with 50% of malignant melanoma cases. In this activity the students take on the role of genome researchers. They interpret real Cancer Genome Project datasets to identify sites of mutation in the BRAF gene.

What does it mean if you are BRAF positive?

A BRAF mutation is a change in a BRAF gene. That change in the gene can lead to an alteration in a protein that regulates cell growth that could allow the melanoma to grow more aggressively. Approximately half of melanomas carry this mutation and are referred to as mutated, or BRAF positive.

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Is it better to be BRAF positive or negative?

We have demonstrated that BRAF positive patients receiving targeted treatment have significantly better survival than their BRAF negative counterparts.

Can you stop the BRAF mutation?

A BRAF Mutation Is Determined From a Biopsy

DNA can also be collected from a sample of cells, using a cheek swab. But the BRAF mutation can’t be pinpointed with any of these methods. Instead, it has to be done on a melanoma tumor tissue sample, which means you would need a biopsy.

How is BRAF mutation detected?

The most commonly used technique to identify BRAF mutation is real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A more comprehensive evaluation of BRAF genotypes can be accomplished using DNA sequencing methods, including traditional Sanger sequencing or newer methods, such as pyrosequencing.

What is BRAF treatment?

BRAF inhibitors are drugs that can shrink or slow the growth of metastatic melanoma in people whose tumors have a BRAF mutation. BRAF inhibitors include vemurafenib (Zelboraf®), dabrafenib (Tafinlar®), and encorafenib (Braftovi®).

What causes BRAF v600e mutation?

Uncontrolled cell growth can lead to cancer. A BRAF mutation can be inherited from your parents or acquired later in life. Mutations that happen later in life are usually caused by the environment or from a mistake that happens in your body during cell division.

Is BRAF a gain of function mutation?

These findings suggest that the novel BRAF mutation, BRAF(V600delinsYM) , is a gain-of-function mutation and plays an important role in PTC development.

What does BRAF code for?

The BRAF gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q34) and codes for the serine/threonine protein kinase, B-Raf.

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