Where does choroidal melanoma metastasize to?
The main site of metastases from choroidal melanoma is the liver, and the highest frequency of liver metastasis is within 4 years after treatment of the primary tumor. Three cases of metastatic disease have been reported 36, 40, and 42 years after enucleation.
How fast does ocular melanoma spread?
There is no known cause, though incidence is highest among people with lighter skin and blue eyes. Approximately 50% of patients with OM will develop metastases by 10 to 15 years after diagnosis (a small percentage of people will develop metastases even later i.e. 20-25 years after their initial diagnosis).
How fast do choroidal melanomas grow?
Choroidal melanomas tend to be very slow-growing, but because they often do not cause symptoms or visual changes when they are small, many are not recognized until they grow to larger sizes.
What are the most common sites for the melanoma to metastasize?
The most common clinically apparent sites of distant metastases in melanoma patients are: skin, lung, brain, liver, bone, and intestine . Metastasis to lung is common and often the first clinically apparent site of visceral metastasis.
What is the prognosis of choroidal melanoma?
Choroidal melanoma is the most common type of intraocular melanoma. The 5-year relative survival rate for people with small choroidal melanoma is 84%. The 5-year relative survival rate for people with medium choroidal melanoma is 68%. The 5-year relative survival rate for people with large choroidal melanoma is 47%.
How long does it take melanoma to metastasis?
214 patients with MM were evaluated retrospectively. Distant metastases (82%) were the most frequent for patients initially metastatic. The median and 1-year survival rates of initially MM patients were 10 months and 41%, respectively. The median time to metastasis for patients with localized disease was 28 months.
Is ocular melanoma a death sentence?
“Overall, melanoma of the eye spreads and leads to death in approximately 30% to 50% of patients,” she said. “When it spreads it most often enjoys living in the liver and the lungs. And once it spreads, the life survival is under 1 year.
How aggressive is ocular melanoma?
This is an aggressive type of cancer that can potentially spread to other areas of the body, most often to the liver. Immediate treatment is often necessary. The approach depends on the size and placement of the tumor, and the stage at which it is found. The two most common treatments are radiation therapy and surgery.
Can choroidal melanoma be cured?
Even though the melanoma is cured and in remission in the eye, life-long systemic monitoring for metastasis is necessary, as metastasis could have occurred before the eye cancer was discovered.
Can a choroidal melanoma be benign?
The choroidal nevus is a benign melanocytic tumor of the ocular fundus that carries a small risk for transformation into small choroidal melanoma. According to Singh et al,3 it is estimated that the annual rate for malignant transformation of choroidal nevus into melanoma is 1 in 8845.
Is choroidal melanoma fatal?
If it spreads, this cancer can be fatal. Although choroidal melanoma is rare, it is the most common eye cancer in adults. It usually occurs in people who are middle-aged or older.