What is the pathology of ovarian cancer?
Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises the majority of malignant ovarian tumors in adult women. These neoplasms are classified into distinct morphologic categories based on the appearance of the epithelium into tumors of serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional, squamous, mixed and undifferentiated type.
What is the most common histologic form of ovarian cancer?
Ovarian serous carcinoma is the most common ovarian epithelial malignancy (60% of cases). There are two different types of ovarian serous carcinoma in terms of morphology and molecular genetics: LGSCs and HGSCs.
What clinical manifestations are characteristic of ovarian cancer?
Symptoms independently associated with the presence of ovarian cancer include pelvic and abdominal pain, increased abdominal size and bloating, and difficulty eating or feeling full. Symptoms associated with later-stage disease include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea.
How many types of ovarian cancer can be identified histologically?
Five major subtypes are included within the surface epithelial-stromal group. They are designated as follows: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and transitional cell (or Brenner type). Highly malignant epithelial-stromal tumors lacking any specific differentiation are classified as undifferentiated.
Can you be fully cured of ovarian cancer?
Approximately 20% of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer survive beyond 12 years after treatment and are effectively cured. Initial therapy for ovarian cancer comprises surgery and chemotherapy, and is given with the goal of eradicating as many cancer cells as possible.
How is ovarian cancer detected?
The 2 tests used most often (in addition to a complete pelvic exam) to screen for ovarian cancer are transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and the CA-125 blood test. TVUS (transvaginal ultrasound) is a test that uses sound waves to look at the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries by putting an ultrasound wand into the vagina.
What age group gets ovarian cancer?
The risk of developing ovarian cancer gets higher with age. Ovarian cancer is rare in women younger than 40. Most ovarian cancers develop after menopause. Half of all ovarian cancers are found in women 63 years of age or older.
What is the most common type of ovarian cancer?
Common types of ovarian cancer
Epithelial ovarian carcinomas: Most epithelial ovarian tumors are benign. However, cancerous epithelial tumors (also known as epithelial ovarian carcinomas) are the most common type of ovarian cancer.
Where is the first place ovarian cancer spreads to?
Metastatic ovarian cancer is an advanced stage malignancy that has spread from the cells in the ovaries to distant areas of the body. This type of cancer is most likely to spread to the liver, the fluid around the lungs, the spleen, the intestines, the brain, skin or lymph nodes outside of the abdomen.
Where is back pain with ovarian cancer?
Severe lower back pain is also associated with ovarian cancer. Just before diagnosis, many women have complained of having back pain that persists throughout the day and interferes with their sleep. This is usually caused by the fluid that collects in the pelvis and causes irritation in the tissues of the lower back.
Are all ovarian tumors cancerous?
Most ovarian germ cell tumors are benign, but some are cancerous and may be life threatening. Less than 2% of ovarian cancers are germ cell tumors. Overall, they have a good outlook, with more than 9 out of 10 patients surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis. There are several subtypes of germ cell tumors.
What is the most common bilateral malignant ovarian neoplasm?
Surface epithelial tumors are the most common variety and accounts for approximately 65–75% of all ovarian tumors 2. The most common type of epithelial ovarian neoplasms encountered is benign cystadenomas, of which 75% are serous cystadenomas and 25% are mucinous cystadenomas 3.