Why does hepatocellular carcinoma increase AFP?


Is AFP elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma?

Normal AFP levels are present in as many as 30% of patients at time of diagnosis and usually remain low, even with advanced HCC 39. AFP >400–500 ng/ml is considered diagnostic for HCC, although fewer than half of patients may generate levels that high 39.

How sensitive is AFP for HCC?

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used serum marker for screening and initial diagnosis of HCC in clinical practice. However, the sensitivity of AFP is only about 60% at a cut-off value of 20 ng/mL, and the specificity is low [8,9,10].

Why is AFP elevated in hepatoblastoma?

Ortega et al found AFP levels elevated for age in 97% of patients. The half-life of AFP is 4-9 days, and levels usually fall to within reference range within 4-6 weeks following resection. Other causes of elevated AFP levels include viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and yolk sac tumors.

What is alpha-fetoprotein and HCC?

The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum is currently available diagnostic marker for HCC discovery. As for patients with chronic liver disease, a sustained increase in AFP serum level was shown to be one of the risk factors of HCC and has been used to help identify high-risk subgroup of chronic liver disease [12].

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What can cause high AFP levels?

High levels of AFP can be a sign of liver cancer or cancer of the ovaries or testicles, as well as noncancerous liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatitis.

How high can AFP levels go?

Some reports indicate that healthy individuals may have AFP levels of up to 20 ng/mL, and levels above this are considered to indicate the possibility of liver disease [16]. The normal range is given as 0 to 7.22 mg/mL in our laboratory and, in the current case, the AFP level was persistently above this range.

What is the life expectancy of a person with hepatocellular carcinoma?

Average follow-up for all HCC patients in this study was 20.4 months. Overall median survival of all 389 patients was 11 months from the date of diagnosis.

How do you confirm HCC?

Tests and procedures used to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma include:

  1. Blood tests to measure liver function.
  2. Imaging tests, such as CT and MRI.
  3. Liver biopsy, in some cases, to remove a sample of liver tissue for laboratory testing.

How accurate is AFP test?

AFP had high overall accuracy, with a c-statistic of 0.87 (95%CI 0.85 – 0.89). Most importantly, we found that patient characteristics influenced the performance of AFP and could be used to define subgroups in whom it performed particularly well.

What is an abnormal AFP result?

What do the results mean? If your results show higher than normal AFP levels, it may mean your baby has a neural tube defect such as spina bifida, a condition in which the bones of the spine don’t close around the spinal cord, or anencephaly, a condition in which the brain does not develop properly.

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What is the survival rate for hepatoblastoma?

Hepatoblastoma Prognosis

Survival rates have reached 80-90 percent. This rate depends upon staging at diagnosis. Patients with fully resected tumors have a greater than 85 percent chance of survival. The rate is about 60 percent for those with metastatic disease that responds to chemo.

How do you lower AFP levels?

Iron reduction therapy significantly reduced the median level of serum AFP from 13 to 7 ng/mL, ALT from 96 to 50 IU/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) from 55 to 28 IU/L, and ferritin from 191 to 10 ng/mL ( for each).