How do p53 play a role in cancer?

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What is p53 and what role does it play in cancer?

p53, also known as TP53 or tumor protein (EC :2.7. 1.37) is a gene that codes for a protein that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppression. It is very important for cells in multicellular organisms to suppress cancer.

How mutations in the p53 gene play a role in cancer?

Mutations (changes) in the p53 gene may cause cancer cells to grow and spread in the body. These changes have been found in a genetic condition called Li-Fraumeni syndrome and in many types of cancer. The p53 gene is a type of tumor suppressor gene.

Why is p53 high in cancer cells?

It is well known that the p53 protein may induce cell apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. Mutation of the p53 gene results in the loss of its ability to induce cell death, which leads to uncontrolled cell growth, thus, promoting tumorigenesis (6,7).

What cancers is p53 associated with?

P53 mutations associated with breast, colorectal, liver, lung, and ovarian cancers. Environ Health Perspect.

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Is p53 associated with hereditary cancers?

LFS is a hereditary genetic condition. This means that the cancer risk can be passed from generation to generation in a family. This condition is most commonly caused by a mutation (alteration) in a gene called TP53, which is the genetic blueprint for a protein called p53.

Is p53 good or bad?

p53 Germline Mutations and Li–Fraumeni Disease. p53, famously dubbed ‘The Guardian of the Genome’, is arguably the most significant gene for cancer suppression. Somatic loss of function of p53 underpins tumor progression in most epithelial cancers and many others besides.

How is p53 inactivated in cancer?

The p53 protein is such a powerful tumor suppressor that it is inactivated in almost every tumor, through either mutations in the TP53 gene or deregulation of its associated pathways.

How often is p53 mutated in cancer?

The p53 gene contains homozygous mutations in ~50–60% of human cancers. About 90% of these mutations encode missense mutant proteins that span ~190 different codons localized in the DNA-binding domain of the gene and protein.

Is p53 always active?

Besides its primary function as a transcription factor, p53 can also promote apoptosis through direct interaction with proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins [6]. The activity of p53 is always under tight control, which ensures that it is not overly abundant in nonstressed cells.

Is p53 active in cancer cells?

Indeed, mutant p53 has an oncogenic potential. In some cases, malignant cancer cells bearing p53 mutations display a chemo-resistant phenotype. In response to a variety of cellular stresses such as DNA damage, p53 is induced to accumulate in cell nucleus to exert its pro-apoptotic function.

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Is p53 upregulated in cancer?

Since the discovery that p53 protein is upregulated in many cancers, there has been the attractive possibility that detection of this upregulation might provide the basis for a diagnostic assay [79].

Does everyone have p53 gene?

We just have to hope it doesn’t make the mistake in p53! In fact, these kinds of mutations can happen to anyone. Most people that get cancer actually have both of their p53 gene copies mutated, just from random chance.