Why are elephants more cancer resistant?
Though many elephant relatives harbor extra copies of tumor suppressor genes, the scientists found that elephant genomes possess some unique duplications that may contribute to tumor suppression through genes involved in DNA repair; resistance to oxidative stress; and cellular growth, aging and death.
How do elephants prevent cancer?
Now the Chicago team has uncovered a key part of that process: a nonfunctioning, or “zombie” gene. The gene, called LIF6, is activated in elephants by p53, after which it kills cancer precursor cells.
What gene protects elephants from cancer?
LIF6, a dead gene that came back to life, prevents cancer by killing cells with DNA damage.
Why do elephants have a lower rate of developing cancer?
The slower metabolism of large animals such as elephants and whales may also play a role in their lower cancer rates: More-intense energy production leads to more cell division, and thus a higher risk of mutations. Just as some creatures are more adept at fending off tumors, others are particularly vulnerable.
Why is cancer so rare in elephants?
For a long time, it was a mystery how elephants managed to grow so big without getting cancer, because every time a cell divides, there is a risk that it could mutate into a cancerous form. And it takes a lotof cell divisions for an elephant embryo to grow into a 13,000-pound animal.
Why do larger animals not get cancer?
A 2014 paper in Evolutionary Applications by Maciak and Michalak emphasized what they termed “a largely underappreciated relation of cell size to both metabolism and cell-division rates across species” as key factors underlying the paradox, and concluded that “larger organisms have bigger and slowly dividing cells with …
Can sharks get cancer?
In a study discussed at a recent cancer research meeting, scientists documented about a dozen cases of apparent cancer in sharks — including a cancer of the cartilage. Scientists have known for some time that sharks get cancer, researcher Gary Ostrander, PhD, tells WebMD.
Are elephants cancer resistant?
Research has already answered the how—elephants possess extra copies of tumor-suppressor genes, leaving the species essentially cancer-resistant.
How do elephants respond to stimuli?
Elephants perceive their environment through multiple sensory modalities, including chemical, auditory, and visual, though they seem to rely more on their auditory and olfactory sensory systems than their visual system [Langbauer, 2000; Plotnik et al., 2013; Rasmussen and Schulte, 1998].